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Child Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01
BACKGROUND

The United Nations (UN) created the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to monitor progress toward achieving goals of the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development of Children and its plan of action. The MICS is nationally representative and internationally comparable.

METHODS

In this study, we use MICS data from 51 low- and middle-income countries on 159 959 children between 36 and 59 months of age. To index national development, we used the 2013 UN Human Development Index (HDI), which provides data on country-level life expectancy, education, and income. To index child development, we used the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI), which assesses literacy and numeracy, socioemotional development, physical health, and approaches to learning.

RESULTS

Children’s literacy and numeracy, socioemotional development, and approaches to learning all increase linearly as national development on the HDI (especially education) increases. Overall, the HDI revealed a positive association (r = 0.40) with the ECDI: the HDI explained 16% of variance in children’s ECDI scores and was the most influential predictor of ECDI scores examined. HDI-ECDI relations are robust, even when we control for multiple demographic aspects of children (age, sex), mothers (age, education), and households (size variables) as covariates. No family demographic variable was a stronger predictor of child development than national development.

CONCLUSIONS

To promote child development, low- and middle-income countries need to develop and implement policies that ensure national health and wealth and, particularly, the educational achievements of children’s caregivers. These findings are faithful to the World Summit for Children and inform the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which drive the international development agenda through 2030.

COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Myocarditis in Adolescents

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01
OBJECTIVES

In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentation, short-term prognosis, and myocardial tissue changes as noted on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or cardiac MRI in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination-associated myocarditis (C-VAM).

METHODS

In this retrospective multicenter study across 16 US hospitals, patients <21 years of age with a diagnosis of C-VAM were included and compared with a cohort with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Younger children with C-VAM were compared with older adolescents.

RESULTS

Sixty-three patients with a mean age of 15.6 years were included; 92% were male. All had received a messenger RNA vaccine and, except for one, presented after the second dose. Four patients had significant dysrhythmia; 14% had mild left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, which resolved on discharge; 88% met the diagnostic CMR Lake Louise criteria for myocarditis. Myocardial injury as evidenced by late gadolinium enhancement on CMR was more prevalent in comparison with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. None of the patients required inotropic, mechanical, or circulatory support. There were no deaths. Follow-up data obtained in 86% of patients at a mean of 35 days revealed resolution of symptoms, arrhythmias, and ventricular dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical characteristics and early outcomes are similar between the different pediatric age groups in C-VAM. The hospital course is mild, with quick clinical recovery and excellent short-term outcomes. Myocardial injury and edema are noted on CMR. Close follow-up and further studies are needed to understand the long-term implications and mechanism of these myocardial tissue changes.

COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Among US Child Care Providers

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01
OBJECTIVES

Ensuring high coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine uptake among US child care providers is crucial to mitigating the public health implications of child-staff and staff-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; however, the vaccination rate among this group was previously unknown.

METHODS

To characterize vaccine uptake among US child care providers, we conducted a multistate cross-sectional survey of the child care workforce. Providers were identified through various national databases and state registries. A link to the survey was sent via e-mail between May 26 and June 23, 2021. A 37.8% response yielded 21 663 respondents, with 20 013 satisfying inclusion criteria.

RESULTS

Overall COVID-19 vaccine uptake among US child care providers (78.2%, 90% confidence interval: 77.5% to 78.9%) was higher than the US general adult population (65%). Vaccination rates varied between states from 53.5% to 89.4%. Vaccine uptake among respondents differed significantly (P < .01) based on respondent age (70.0% for ages 25–34, 91.6% for ages 75–84), race (70.0% for Black or African Americans, 92.5% for Asian Americans), annual household income (70.8% for <$35 000, 85.1% for >$75 000), and child care setting (73.0% for home-based, 79.7% for center-based).

CONCLUSIONS

COVID-19 vaccine uptake among US child care providers was higher than the general US adult population. Those who were younger, lower income, Black or African American, resided in states either in the Mountain West or the South, and/or worked in home-based child care programs reported the lowest rates of vaccination. State public health leaders and lawmakers should prioritize these subgroups to realize the largest gains in vaccine uptake among providers.

Authors Response

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01

Biologics for Asthma and Allergic Skin Diseases in Children

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01

An estimated 7 million children in the United States have asthma, which causes a significant health care burden and affects quality of life. The minority of these children have asthma that does not respond to Global Initiative for Asthma steps 4 and 5 care, and biological medications are recommended at this level in the 2019 Global Initiative for Asthma recommendations. In addition, biologics have been introduced into the care of children with allergic skin diseases. Omalizumab and mepolizumab are approved for children as young as 6 years, and benralizumab and dupilumab are approved for people aged ≥12 years. Reslizumab is approved only for people aged ≥18 years. These monoclonal antibodies may be added for appropriate patients when asthma or allergic skin diseases are not well controlled. Pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists should work together and be aware of the benefits and risks of these medications for their patients, as well as the practical implications of providing these options for their patients. This clinical report serves as an evaluation of the current literature on these types of medications in the treatment of children with asthma and allergic skin disease.

Topical Nasal Decongestant Oxymetazoline: Safety Considerations for Perioperative Pediatric Use

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01

The over-the-counter nasal decongestant oxymetazoline (eg, Afrin) is used in the pediatric population for a variety of conditions in the operating room setting. Given its vasoconstrictive properties, it can have cardiovascular adverse effects when systemically absorbed. There have been several reports of cardiac and respiratory complications related to use of oxymetazoline in the pediatric population. Current US Food and Drug Administration approval for oxymetazoline is for patients ≥6 years of age, but medical professionals may elect to use it short-term and off label for younger children in particular clinical scenarios in which the potential benefit may outweigh risks (eg, active bleeding, acute respiratory distress from nasal obstruction, acute complicated sinusitis, improved surgical visualization, nasal decongestion for scope examination, other conditions, etc). To date, there have not been adequate pediatric pharmacokinetic studies of oxymetazoline, so caution should be exercised with both the quantity of dosing and the technique of administration. In the urgent care setting, emergency department, or inpatient setting, to avoid excessive administration of the medication, medical professionals should use the spray bottle in an upright position with the child upright. In addition, in the operating room setting, both monitoring the quantity used and effective communication between the surgeon and anesthesia team are important. Further studies are needed to understand the systemic absorption and effects in children in both nonsurgical and surgical nasal use of oxymetazoline.

Promoting Human Milk and Breastfeeding for the Very Low Birth Weight Infant

Lun, 01/11/2021 - 09:01

Provision of mother’s own milk for hospitalized very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) infants in the NICU provides short- and long-term health benefits. Mother’s own milk, appropriately fortified, is the optimal nutrition source for VLBW infants. Every mother should receive information about the critical importance of mother's own milk to the health of a VLBW infant. Pasteurized human donor milk is recommended when mother’s own milk is not available or sufficient. Neonatal health care providers can support lactation in the NICU and potentially reduce disparities in the provision of mother’s own milk by providing institutional supports for early and frequent milk expression and by promoting skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding, when appropriate. Promotion of human milk and breastfeeding for VLBW infants requires multidisciplinary and system-wide adoption of lactation support practices.

Decreasing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Failure in Preterm Infants

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Many preterm infants stabilized on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at birth require mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first 72 hours of life, which is defined as CPAP failure. Our objective was to decrease CPAP failure in infants ≤29 weeks’ gestational age (GA).

METHODS

A quality improvement bundle named OPTISURF was implemented for infants ≤29 weeks’ GA admitted on CPAP, consisting of stepwise escalation of CPAP and less invasive surfactant administration guided by fractional inspired oxygen concentration ≥0.3. The CPAP failure rate was tracked by using control charts. We compared practice and outcomes of a pre–OPTISURF cohort (January 2017 to September 2018) to a post-OPTISURF cohort (October 2018 to December 2019).

RESULTS

Of the 216 infants ≤29 weeks’ GA admitted to NICU on CPAP, 125 infants belonged to the pre-OPTISURF cohort (OSC) and 91 to the post-OSC. Compared with the pre-OSC, a higher proportion of infants in the post-OSC received CPAP 7 cm H2O within 4 hours of life (7% vs 32%; P < .01). The post-OSC also had lower rates of CPAP failure (54% vs 11%; P < .01), pneumothoraces (8% vs 1%; P < .03), need for MV (58% vs 31%; P < .01), and patent ductus arteriosus treatment (21% vs 9%; P = .02). Additionally, in a subgroup analysis, CPAP failure was lower in the post-OSC among infants 23 to 26 weeks (79% vs 27%; P < .01) and 27 to 29 weeks’ GA (46% vs 3%; P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS

Implementation of a quality improvement bundle including CPAP optimization and less invasive surfactant administration decreased CPAP failure and need for MV in preterm infants.

Optimizing Situation Awareness to Reduce Emergency Transfers in Hospitalized Children

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Interventions to improve care team situation awareness (SA) are associated with reduced rates of unrecognized clinical deterioration in hospitalized children. By addressing themes from recent safety events and emerging corruptors to SA in our system, we aimed to decrease emergency transfers (ETs) to the ICU by 50% over 10 months.

METHODS

An interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and families convened to improve the original SA model for clinical deterioration and address communication inadequacies and evolving technology in our inpatient system. The key drivers included the establishment of a shared mental model, psychologically safe escalation, and efficient and effective SA tools. Novel interventions including the intentional inclusion of families and the interdisciplinary team in huddles, a mental model checklist, door signage, and an electronic health record SA navigator were evaluated via a time series analysis. Sequential inpatient-wide testing of the model allowed for iteration and consensus building across care teams and families. The primary outcome measure was ETs, defined as any ICU transfer in which the patient receives intubation, inotropes, or ≥3 fluid boluses within 1 hour.

RESULTS

The rate of ETs per 10 000 patient-days decreased from 1.34 to 0.41 during the study period. This coincided with special cause improvement in process measures, including risk recognition before medical response team activation and the use of tools to facilitate shared SA.

CONCLUSIONS

An innovative, proactive, and reliable process to predict, prevent, and respond to clinical deterioration was associated with a nearly 70% reduction in ETs.

Sexual Minority Status and Age of Onset of Adolescent Suicide Ideation and Behavior

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
OBJECTIVES

To determine if sexual minority adolescents have earlier onset of suicidality and faster progressions from ideation to plan and attempt than heterosexual adolescents.

METHODS

A population-based longitudinal cohort of 1771 adolescents participated in the NEXT Generation Health Study. Participants reported sexual minority status (defined by sexual attraction) in 2010–2011 and retrospectively reported age at onset of suicidality in 2015–2016.

RESULTS

Sexual minority adolescents (5.8% of weighted sample) had higher lifetime risk of suicide ideation (26.1% vs 13.0%), plan (16.6% vs 5.4%), and attempt (12.0% vs 5.4%) than heterosexual adolescents. Survival analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms revealed positive associations of sexual minority status with time to first onset of suicide ideation (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–3.06) and plan (HR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.30–5.56). The association between sexual minority status and age at onset of suicide attempt was stronger at age <15 (HR = 3.26; 95% CI 1.25–8.47) than age ≥15 (HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.21–1.66). The association between sexual minority status and progression from ideation to plan was stronger in the same year of first ideation (HR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.07–3.77) than ≥1 year after first ideation (HR = 1.33; 95% CI 0.26–6.77).

CONCLUSIONS

Sexual minority adolescents had earlier onset of suicidality and faster progression from suicide ideation to plan than heterosexual adolescents. The assessment of sexual minority status in routine pediatric care has the potential to inform suicide risk screening, management, and intervention efforts among early sexual minority adolescents.

Reducing Severe Tracheal Intubation Events Through an Individualized Airway Bundle

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND

Neonatal tracheal intubation (TI) is a high-risk procedure associated with adverse safety events. In our newborn and infant ICU, we measure adverse tracheal intubation–associated events (TIAEs) as part of our participation in National Emergency Airway Registry for Neonates, a neonatal airway registry. We aimed to decrease overall TIAEs by 10% in 12 months.

METHODS

A quality improvement team developed an individualized approach to intubation using an Airway Bundle (AB) for patients at risk for TI. Plan-do-study-act cycles included AB creation, simulation, unit roll out, interprofessional education, team competitions, and adjusting AB location. Outcome measure was monthly rate of TIAEs (overall and severe). Process measures were AB initiation, AB use at intubation, video laryngoscope (VL) use, and paralytic use. Balancing measure was inadvertent administration of TI premedication. We used statistical process control charts.

RESULTS

Data collection from November 2016 to August 2020 included 1182 intubations. Monthly intubations ranged from 12 to 41. Initial overall TIAE rate was 0.093 per intubation encounter, increased to 0.172, and then decreased to 0.089. System stability improved over time. Severe TIAE rate decreased from 0.047 to 0.016 in June 2019. AB initiation improved from 70% to 90%, and AB use at intubation improved from 18% to 55%. VL use improved from 86% to 97%. Paralytic use was 83% and did not change. The balancing measure of inadvertent TI medication administration occurred once.

CONCLUSIONS

We demonstrated a significant decrease in the rate of severe TIAEs through the implementation of an AB. Next steps include increasing use of AB at intubation.

Pubertal Suppression, Bone Mass, and Body Composition in Youth With Gender Dysphoria

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Puberty onset and development contribute substantially to adolescents’ bone mass and body composition. Our objective with this study was to examine the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) on these puberty-induced changes among youth with gender dysphoria (GD).

METHODS

Medical records of the endocrine diversity clinic in an academic children’s hospital were reviewed for youth with GD seen from January 2006 to April 2017 with at least 1 baseline dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry measurement.

RESULTS

At baseline, transgender females had lower lumbar spine (LS) and left total hip (LTH) areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and LS bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) z scores. Only 44.7% of transgender youth were vitamin D sufficient. Baseline vitamin D status was associated with LS, LTH aBMD, and LS BMAD z scores. Post-GnRHa assessments revealed a significant drop in LS and LTH aBMD z scores (transgender males and transgender females) without fractures and LS BMAD (transgender males), an increase in gynoid (fat percentage), and android (fat percentage) (transgender males and transgender females), and no changes in BMI z score.

CONCLUSIONS

GnRHa monotherapy negatively affected bone mineral density of youth with GD without evidence of fractures or changes in BMI z score. Transgender youth body fat redistribution (android versus gynoid) were in keeping with their affirmed gender. The majority of transgender youth had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency with baseline status associated with bone mineral density. Vitamin D supplementation should be considered for all youth with GD.

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