To determine the epidemiology and microbiology of early-onset sepsis (EOS) among very preterm infants using a nationally representative cohort from academic and community hospitals to inform empirical antibiotic guidance, highlight risk factors for infection, and aid in prognostication for infected infants.METHODS
Prospective observational study of very preterm infants born weighing 401 to 1500 g or at 22 to 29 weeks’ gestational age from January 2018 to December 2019 in 753 Vermont Oxford Network centers. EOS was defined as a culture-confirmed bacterial infection of the blood or cerebrospinal fluid in the 3 days after birth. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between infants with and without EOS.RESULTS
Of 84 333 included infants, 1139 had EOS for an incidence rate of 13.5 per 1000 very preterm births (99% confidence interval [CI] 12.5–14.6). Escherichia coli (538 of 1158; 46.5%) and group B Streptococcus (218 of 1158; 18.8%) were the most common pathogens. Infected infants had longer lengths of stay (median 92 vs 66 days) and lower rates of survival (67.5% vs 90.4%; adjusted risk ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.79–0.85]) and of survival without morbidity (26.1% vs 59.4%; adjusted risk ratio 0.66 [95% CI 0.60–0.72]).CONCLUSIONS
In a nationally representative sample of very preterm infants with EOS from 2018 to 2019, approximately one-third of isolates were neither group B Streptococcus nor E coli. Three-quarters of all infected infants either died or survived with a major medical morbidity. The profoundly negative impact of EOS on very preterm infants highlights the need for novel preventive strategies.
Anxiety is common, screening tools are available, and treatment can be effective. Recently, anxiety screening has been recommended for adolescent girls beginning at 13 years of age.OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the evidence regarding anxiety screening test accuracy in primary care for children and adolescents and assess the effectiveness of treatment of individuals identified through screening.DATA SOURCES
We searched PubMed, the Cochrane library, and references to potentially eligible studies cited in other articles.STUDY SELECTION
Screening studies were included if they were conducted in primary care or a similar population and employed a reference standard based on DSM criteria. Treatment studies were included if subjects were identified through screening and there was at least 1 comparator intervention or a placebo arm.DATA EXTRACTION
At least 2 reviewers evaluated each identified reference.RESULTS
Two screening studies (1 with low risk of bias and 1 with high risk of bias) and 1 treatment study with a low risk of bias were included. The screening study with a low risk of bias reported a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 80%. The treatment study found individual cognitive behavioral therapy to be effective for screen-detected adolescents with social phobia.LIMITATIONS
This review only included screening or treatment studies with clear evidence that the study populations were derived from an unselected population reflective of typical primary care. Relevant studies not indexed in PubMed or the Cochrane library could have been missed.CONCLUSIONS
There are significant gaps in evidence related to anxiety screening in the primary care setting.
When the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began, experts raised concerns about in-person instruction in the setting of high levels of community transmission. We describe secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within North Carolina kindergarten through 12th-grade school districts during a winter surge to determine if mitigation strategies can hinder within-school transmission.METHODS
From October 26, 2020, to February 28, 2021, 13 North Carolina school districts participating in The ABC Science Collaborative were open for in-person instruction, adhered to basic mitigation strategies, and tracked community- and school-acquired SARS-CoV-2 cases. Public health officials adjudicated each case. We combined these data with that from August 2020 to evaluate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 winter surge on infection rates as well as weekly community- and school-acquired cases. We evaluated the number of secondary cases generated by each primary case as well as the role of athletic activities in school-acquired cases.RESULTS
More than 100 000 students and staff from 13 school districts attended school in person; of these, 4969 community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections were documented by molecular testing. Through contact tracing, North Carolina local health department staff identified an additional 209 infections among >26 000 school close contacts (secondary attack rate <1%). Most within-school transmissions in high schools (75%) were linked to school-sponsored sports. School-acquired cases slightly increased during the surge; however, within-school transmission rates remained constant, from presurge to surge, with ~1 school-acquired case for every 20 primary cases.CONCLUSIONS
With adherence to basic mitigation strategies, within-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can be interrupted, even during a surge of community infections.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic significantly impacted undergraduate and graduate medical education and created challenges that prevented a traditional approach to residency and fellowship recruitment and interviews. Early in the pandemic, the pediatric education community came together to support applicants and training programs and to foster an equitable recruitment process. We describe many of our community’s innovations, including the use of virtual cafés to educate programs and highlight best practices for virtual recruitment and the use of regional webinars to highlight residency programs and provide information to applicants. Surveys of applicants and programs suggest that the virtual interview process worked well overall, with applicants and programs saving both time and money and programs maintaining a high rate of filling their positions. On the basis of this experience, we highlight the strengths and weaknesses of 3 potential models for future interview seasons. We close with a series of questions that need further investigation to create an effective and equitable recruitment process for the future.
The following is the winning submission from the fifth annual Section on Pediatric Trainees Monthly Feature essay competition. For this year’s competition, we asked trainees to reflect on and share how their unique identity, or identities, informs their advocacy work on behalf of children and families. We asked writers to consider how their personal histories and backgrounds, including sex, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, religion, geographic area, and life experiences improve equity in pediatric health care. We were impressed by the broad variety of important topics addressed in the pieces submitted by trainees from around the country. The winning essay by Dr Haleigh Prather highlights her experiences as a Hispanic woman raised by a single, working-class mother; the obstacles that she faced in her life and how she surmounted them; and how her strength and resilience shaped her approach to health care delivery. In this piece, she underscores how the lessons learned by trainees from challenges in their own lives promote advocacy for the health and welfare of patients.
This technical report accompanies the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of the influenza vaccine and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2021–2022 season. Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to protect vulnerable populations and reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses during circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is expected to continue during this influenza season. In this technical report, we summarize recent influenza seasons, morbidity and mortality in children, vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, and detailed guidance on storage, administration, and implementation. We also provide background on inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccine recommendations, vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding, diagnostic testing, and antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis.
After a sudden infant death, parents and caregivers need accurate and open communication about why their infant died. Communicating tragic news about a child’s death to families and caregivers is difficult. Shared and consistent terminology is essential for pediatricians, other physicians, and nonphysician clinicians to improve communication with families and among themselves. When families do not have complete information about why their child died, pediatricians will not be able to support them through the process and make appropriate referrals for pediatric specialty and mental health care. Families can only speculate about the cause and may blame themselves or others for the infant’s death. The terminology used to describe infant deaths that occur suddenly and unexpectedly includes an assortment of terms that vary across and among pediatrician, other physician, or nonphysician clinician disciplines. Having consistent terminology is critical to improve the understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of these deaths and communicate with families. A lack of consistent terminology also makes it difficult to reliably monitor trends in mortality and hampers the ability to develop effective interventions. This report describes the history of sudden infant death terminology and summarizes the debate over the terminology and the resulting diagnostic shift of these deaths. This information is to assist pediatricians, other physicians, and nonphysician clinicians in caring for families during this difficult time. The importance of consistent terminology is outlined, followed by a summary of progress toward consensus. Recommendations for pediatricians, other physicians, and nonphysician clinicians are proposed.
School-based health centers (SBHCs) are unique health care settings for our nation’s school-aged children and adolescents. SBHCs represent the collaboration between the health and school communities to support the health and mental health needs and the academic achievements of children and adolescents, particularly students with health disparities or poor access to health care. SBHCs improve access to health care services for students by decreasing financial, geographic, age, and cultural barriers. This policy statement provides an overview of SBHCs, including the scope of services as well as some of the documented benefits and challenges. This policy statement also reviews the role of SBHCs in working with the pediatric medical home and provides recommendations that support the coordination of SBHCs with pediatric primary care providers and the pediatric medical home.