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Concurrent Use of E-cigarettes, Combustible Cigarettes, and Marijuana

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
OBJECTIVE

Subgroups of adolescent single and dual e-cigarette and cigarette users have been identified, but usage patterns have changed in recent years, and there has been an increase in marijuana use. Research is needed with current data to identify subgroups of use including marijuana and determine their behavioral correlates.

METHODS

We cross classified ever and recent use of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and marijuana among US high school students in the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), providing 8 different groups. Levels of 14 risk and protective factors were compared across groups in general linear models with demographic covariates using omnibus tests, pairwise comparisons, and planned contrasts. Replicability was tested through identical analyses for 2017 YRBS data.

RESULTS

The nonuser group was 43.9% of the sample. The most frequent user groups were triple users (ever-use proportion: 16.9%), dual (e-cigarette and marijuana) users (15.8%), and exclusive e-cigarette users (13.2%). For risk profiles on levels of psychosocial variables, the triple-user group was typically elevated above all other groups. Exclusive e-cigarette users were above nonusers in risk profile but below dual users (both cigarettes and marijuana). Results were similar for ever use and recent use. The patterning of results in 2019 YRBS data were closely replicated in 2017 YRBS data.

CONCLUSIONS

Co-occurrence of e-cigarette, cigarette, and marijuana use is currently substantial among adolescents and is associated with an elevated psychosocial risk profile. This has implications for both epidemiology and prevention studies. Further research is needed to study prevalence and identify pathways to triple use.

High-Intensity Interval Training and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children: A Meta-analysis

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
CONTEXT

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been widely used to prevent and treat cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and adults; nevertheless, the available evidence in children is scarce.

OBJECTIVE

To synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIIT interventions on improving cardiovascular risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children from 5 to 12 years old.

DATA SOURCES

We searched 5 databases, Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science.

STUDY SELECTION

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of HIIT interventions on cardiometabolic risk factors and CRF in children were included.

DATA EXTRACTION

Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on body composition, cardiometabolic and CRF variables in comparison with nontraining control groups.

RESULTS

A total of 11 RCTs and 512 participants were included. The results of the meta-analysis revealed a significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 1.12; P = 0.001], in total cholesterol [SMD = –1.09, 95% CI = –1.88 to –0.30; P = 0.007], in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [SMD = –1.28, 95% CI = –2.34 to –0.23; P = 0.017] and triglycerides [SMD = –0.71, 95% CI = –1.15 to –0.28; P = 0.001) levels.

LIMITATIONS

Because of the small number of available RCTs, it was not possible to conduct a subgroup analysis or a linear meta-regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

HIIT is a feasible and time-efficient approach for improving CRF, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in children.

Cognitive and Executive Function in Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
CONTEXT

Cognitive function and executive function (EF) impairments contribute to the long-term burden of congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the degree and profile of impairments are insufficiently described.

OBJECTIVE

To systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on cognitive function and EF outcomes in school-aged children operated for CHD and identify the risk factors for an unfavorable outcome.

DATA SOURCES

Cochrane, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO.

STUDY SELECTION

Original peer-reviewed studies reporting cognitive or EF outcome in 5- to 17-year old children with CHD after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

DATA EXTRACTION

Results of IQ and EF assessments were extracted, and estimates were transformed to means and SE. Standardized mean differences were calculated for comparison with healthy controls.

RESULTS

Among 74 studies (3645 children with CHD) reporting total IQ, the summary estimate was 96.03 (95% confidence interval: 94.91 to 97.14). Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and univentricular CHD cohorts performed significantly worse than atrial and ventricular septum defect cohorts (P = .0003; P = .027). An older age at assessment was associated with lower IQ scores in cohorts with transposition of the great arteries (P = .014). Among 13 studies (774 children with CHD) reporting EF compared with controls, the standardized mean difference was –0.56 (95% confidence interval: –0.65 to –0.46) with no predilection for a specific EF domain or age effect.

LIMITATIONS

Heterogeneity between studies was large.

CONCLUSIONS

Intellectual impairments in CHD are frequent, with severity and trajectory depending on the CHD subtype. EF performance is poorer in children with CHD without a specific EF profile. The heterogeneity in studied populations and applied assessments is large. A uniform testing guideline is urgently needed.

Six Month Follow-up of Patients With Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Myocardial dysfunction and coronary abnormalities are prominent features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In this study we aim to evaluate the early and midterm outcomes of MIS-C.

METHODS

This is a longitudinal 6-month cohort study of all children admitted and treated for MIS-C from April 17 to June 20, 2020. Patients were followed ~2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postadmission, with those with coronary aneurysms evaluated more frequently.

RESULTS

Acutely, 31 (62%) patients required intensive care with vasoactive support, 26 (52%) had left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, 16 (32%) had LV diastolic dysfunction, 8 (16%) had coronary aneurysms (z score ≥2.5), and 4 (8%) had coronary dilation (z score <2.5). A total of 48 patients (96%) received immunomodulatory treatment. At 2 weeks, there was persistent mild LV systolic dysfunction in 1 patient, coronary aneurysms in 2, and dilated coronary artery in 1. By 8 weeks through 6 months, all patients returned to functional baseline with normal LV systolic function and resolution of coronary abnormalities. Cardiac MRI performed during recovery in select patients revealed no myocardial edema or fibrosis. Some patients demonstrated persistent diastolic dysfunction at 2 weeks (5, 11%), 8 weeks (4, 9%), and 6 months (1, 4%).

CONCLUSIONS

Children with MIS-C treated with immunomodulators have favorable early outcomes with no mortality, normalization of LV systolic function, recovery of coronary abnormalities, and no inflammation or scarring on cardiac MRI. Persistence of diastolic dysfunction is of uncertain significance and indicates need for larger studies to improve understanding of MIS-C. These findings may help guide clinical management, outpatient monitoring, and considerations for sports clearance.

Should a Healthcare System Facilitate Racially Concordant Care for Black Patients?

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01

Addressing racial disparities in health outcomes is an urgent priority for many health care organizations, leading health care managers to explore the potential for organization-level interventions to yield substantive health gains. In recent literature, it is suggested that Black patients who are treated by Black physicians may achieve superior health outcomes in some settings. In this case discussion, we consider a case in which a medical director considers implementing a voluntary program to promote racially concordant care for Black patients. Commentators consider the precedent for such a program, both in current informal care networks and 20th century medical history, as well as the burden such a program may place on Black physicians and the risks of reducing patients’ intersectional identities to be solely about race. A subset of commentators suggest that these risks are mitigated by the voluntary nature of the program, whereas others offer caution about relying solely on Black physicians to remedy health disparities. Others view multiple paths as morally defensible but emphasize the need for managers to take proactive steps to communicate and evaluate their choices in the face of such a complex social challenge.

Six Stages of Engagement in ADHD Treatment Described by Diverse, Urban Parents

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition in children. Although ADHD is treatable, barriers remain to engagement in treatment, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial and ethnic minority families. Our goal was to examine the process by which families engage in ADHD treatment and to identify targets for an intervention to improve engagement in care.

METHODS

We conducted in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews with 41 parents of diverse youth aged 3 to 17 years old in treatment of ADHD at an urban safety net hospital. Parents were asked about their journey through diagnosis and treatment, community attitudes about ADHD, and other factors influencing treatment access and decision-making. Transcripts were analyzed by using thematic analysis.

RESULTS

Of children with ADHD, 69.2% were male, 57.7% were Black or African American, and 38.5% were of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Parents were 92.7% female, were 75.6% English speaking, and had a median income of $20 000. Parents described 6 stages to the process of engaging in care for their child’s ADHD, which unfolded like a developmental process: (1) normalization and hesitation, (2) fear and stigmatization, (3) action and advocacy, (4) communication and navigation, (5) care and validation, and (6) preparation and transition. Barriers often occurred at points of stage mismatch between parents and providers and/or systems. Difficulty resolving an earlier stage interfered with the progression through subsequent stages.

CONCLUSIONS

The 6 stages framework could be used to develop new strategies to measure engagement and to design family-centered interventions to facilitate engagement in ADHD treatment.

Economic Trends of Racial Disparities in Pediatric Postappendectomy Complications

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND

Despite unparalleled advances in perioperative medicine, surgical outcomes remain poor for racial minority patients relative to their white counterparts. Little is known about the excess costs to the health care system related to these disparities.

METHODS

We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2001 and 2018. We included children younger than 18 years admitted with appendicitis who underwent an appendectomy during their hospital stay. We examined the inflation-adjusted hospital costs attributable to the racial disparities in surgical complications and perforation status, focusing on differences between non-Hispanic white patients and non-Hispanic Black patients.

RESULTS

We included 100 639 children who underwent appendectomy, of whom 89.9% were non-Hispanic white and 10.1% were non-Hispanic Black. Irrespective of perforation status at presentation, surgical complications were consistently higher for Black compared with white children, with no evidence of narrowing of the racial disparity gap over time. Black children consistently incurred higher hospital costs (median difference: $629 [95% confidence interval: $500–$758; P < .01). The total inflation-adjusted hospital costs for Black children were $518 658 984, and $59 372 044 (11.41%) represented the excess because of the racial disparities in perforation rates.

CONCLUSIONS

Although all patients had a progressive decline in post appendectomy complications, Black children consistently had higher rates of complications and perforation, imposing a significant economic burden. We provide an empirical economic argument for sustained efforts to reduce racial disparities in pediatric surgical outcomes, notwithstanding that eliminating these disparities is simply the right thing to do.

IgA Nephropathy as the Initial Presentation of Celiac Disease in an Adolescent

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (Berger’s disease) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. The disease typically is chronic and lifelong and eventually progresses to impaired renal function in a substantial proportion of cases. It has been known for some time that there is a correlation between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease, but until now it has remained unclear whether treatment of the underlying celiac disease has any meaningful impact on the progression of the renal disease. Therefore, until now, screening for celiac disease in patients presenting with IgA nephropathy has not been universally recommended in the absence of suggestive gastrointestinal symptoms. This report describes a case of IgA nephropathy in an adolescent boy that turned out to be the initial presentation of celiac disease. More importantly, it documents the complete laboratory normalization of his renal anomalies at 5-year follow-up after treatment of his celiac disease with implementation of a gluten-free diet. This case highlights the importance of awareness that suspected IgA nephropathy, even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, should prompt screening for underlying celiac disease as a potential, and possibly treatable, cause.

Patient, Provider, and Health Care System Characteristics Associated With Overuse in Bronchiolitis

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends against the routine use of β-agonists, corticosteroids, antibiotics, chest radiographs, and viral testing in bronchiolitis, but use of these modalities continues. Our objective for this study was to determine the patient, provider, and health care system characteristics that are associated with receipt of low-value services.

METHODS

Using the Virginia All-Payers Claims Database, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged 0 to 23 months with bronchiolitis (code J21, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) in 2018. We recorded medications within 3 days and chest radiography or viral testing within 1 day of diagnosis. Using Poisson regression, we identified characteristics associated with each type of overuse.

RESULTS

Fifty-six percent of children with bronchiolitis received ≥1 form of overuse, including 9% corticosteroids, 17% antibiotics, 20% β-agonists, 26% respiratory syncytial virus testing, and 18% chest radiographs. Commercially insured children were more likely than publicly insured children to receive a low-value service (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.30; P < .0001). Children in emergency settings were more likely to receive a low-value service (aPR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.15–1.33; P < .0001) compared with children in inpatient settings. Children seen in rural locations were more likely than children seen in cities to receive a low-value service (aPR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.11–1.29; P < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Overuse in bronchiolitis remains common and occurs frequently in emergency and outpatient settings and rural locations. Quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing overuse should include these clinical environments.

Educational Priorities for Providing End-of-Life Care: Parent Perspectives

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
OBJECTIVES

Partnership with parents is a tenet of pediatric medicine; however, initiatives to include parents in education and research have been limited. Through focus groups, we included parents at the beginning of curriculum development by asking them to identify the priorities, existing supports, and opportunities for improvement in their child’s end-of-life (EOL) care.

METHODS

English and Spanish-speaking bereaved parents whose child had been cared for by the palliative care team and had died >18 months before the study initiation were invited to participate. In-person focus groups and a follow-up phone call were used to elicit opinions and capture a diversity of viewpoints. Themes were identified and clustered through an iterative analytic process.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven parents of 17 children participated, with the total sample size determined by thematic saturation. Four themes were identified as important to parents in their child’s EOL care: (1) honoring the role of the parent, (2) having confidence in the care team, (3) receiving gestures of love and caring, and (4) navigating logistic challenges.

CONCLUSIONS

We asked parents to be partners in guiding priorities for health care education and professional development to improve pediatric EOL care. In addition to strengthening skills in communication, confidence in the team, and compassion, parents in this study identified a need for hospital staff to anticipate financial and social stressors and provide supportive resources more readily. Additionally, parents described clinical and nonclinical staff as providing support, suggesting that a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary curriculum be developed to improve pediatric EOL care.

Teaching Basic Life Support to 5- to 8-Year-Old Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
OBJECTIVE

We aimed to compare traditional basic life support (BLS) education with specific and innovative educative didactic material that has been previously designed and validated.

METHODS

Fifteen classes of schoolchildren aged 5 to 8 years (n = 237) were randomly assigned to 4 groups in which different didactic and complementary materials were used: (1) the Rescube tool with a cuddly toy (n = 61), (2) the Endless Book tool with a cuddly toy (n = 74), (3) traditional teaching with a cuddly toy (n = 46), and (4) traditional teaching with a manikin (n = 55). The BLS sequence was assessed at baseline (T0). After that, children took part in a one-hour theory and practice session in their assigned training modality. BLS sequence was assessed again within one week (T1) and after one month (T2).

RESULTS

The 4 modalities were successful in improving children’s skills when comparing T0 with both T1 and T2 (P < .05). At T2, more schoolchildren remembered the complete BLS sequence after using the Rescube (75%) compared with the number of schoolchildren who remember the complete BLS sequence after using the Endless Book (53%), a manikin (42%), or a cuddly toy (13%) (P < .05). A higher proportion of participants who used the Rescube correctly performed all the BLS steps analyzed compared with those who used only the manikin or a cuddly toy during the learning phase. The Endless Book was also more effective except for learning to check consciousness and breathing.

CONCLUSION

Better BLS learning and knowledge retention outcomes were achieved by using our specific and adapted didactic materials (Rescube and Endless Book). These new educational tools have the potential to substantially support BLS school education programs.

Collaborating to Advocate in Primary Care for Children During COVID-19

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01

The St Louis Regional Pediatric Learning Collaborative of pediatric primary care providers and infectious diseases specialists formed in March 2020 to address the needs of children and families during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. More than 400 pediatric primary care providers participated, using a listserv to discuss care and organize webinars to provide updates on local and national data and plan next steps. To inform local decision-making about care and testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, 95 providers from 26 practices partnered with the local practice-based research network to rapidly collect and share data about children with COVID-19–like symptoms. Of 2162 children tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, 9% had positive test results. Test result positivity was 33% if a patient was exposed to a confirmed case of COVID-19 and 4% if they had COVID-19–like symptoms and no exposure. School or day care attendance was associated with lower rates of positive test results. Although not originally planned, these findings drove local advocacy efforts by the Collaborative for increased access to testing and contact tracing and safe in-person school. Members communicated directly and collectively with local politicians, provided advice and resources for school boards and superintendent groups, and appeared on various media platforms. In these efforts, they shared local data, highlighting the lower rate of positive test results for children in school to support the idea that schools could be safely open. Outreach from trusted pediatricians sharing prospective, timely, local data sustained in-person school for some districts and aided in future in-person openings for other school districts.

Medical Admissions Among Adolescents With Eating Disorders During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Emerging data suggest the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with worsening symptoms of eating disorders (EDs) among both adults and adolescents. With this study, we sought to determine if medical admission patterns among adolescents admitted to our institution for restrictive EDs changed during the pandemic, relative to prepandemic counts of admissions per month.

METHODS

We performed a chart review of patients aged 10 to 23 years admitted to our children’s hospital for restrictive EDs from March 2017 through March 2021 and completed an interrupted time series analysis of admission counts per month. Demographic variables for admitted patients were compared by using 2, Fisher's exact, and 2-sample t tests.

RESULTS

ED-related medical admissions at our institution increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The total number of admissions during the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 1, 2020, through March 31, 2021, n = 125) was more than double the mean number of admissions per year for the same time frame (April 1 through March 31) for the previous 3 years (mean = 56). Patient demographics were similar before and during the pandemic, with the exception that patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic were less likely than those admitted before the pandemic to have public insurance.

CONCLUSIONS

Medical admissions related to restrictive EDs among adolescents increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatric providers in a variety of settings should be prepared to care for adolescents with restrictive EDs during the pandemic.

Parents Intentions and Perceptions About COVID-19 Vaccination for Their Children: Results From a National Survey

Vie, 01/10/2021 - 10:01
OBJECTIVES

Assess the degree to which US parents are likely to have their children get coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and identify parental concerns about the vaccines.

METHODS

In February 2021 to March 2021, we surveyed parent members of a nationally representative probability-based Internet panel of ~9000 adults regarding their intent to have their children receive a COVID-19 vaccination, perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines for children, and trust in sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines for children. We used descriptive and multivariate analyses to evaluate parent-stated likelihood of having their children get a COVID-19 vaccine and to assess the association between likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination and child age, parent demographics, and parental perceptions about COVID-19 vaccines.

RESULTS

Altogether, 1745 parents responded (87% of eligible parents, 3759 children). Likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination was as follows: very likely (28%), somewhat likely (18%), somewhat unlikely (9%), very unlikely (33%), and unsure (12%). The stated likelihood of child vaccination was greater among parents of older children (P < .001) as well as among parents who had a bachelor’s degree or higher education (P < .001), had already received or were likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine (P < .001), or had Democratic affiliation (P < .001); variations existed by race and ethnicity (P = .04). Parental concerns centered around vaccine safety and side effects. A key trusted source of information about COVID-19 vaccines for children was the child’s doctor.

CONCLUSIONS

Less than one-half of US participants report that they are likely to have their child receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Pediatric health care providers have a major role in promoting and giving COVID-19 vaccination for children.

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