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Referrals of transgender and gender-diverse (trans) youth to medical clinics for gender-affirming care have increased. We described characteristics of trans youth in Canada at first referral visit.METHODS
Baseline clinical and survey data (2017–2019) were collected for Trans Youth CAN!, a 10-clinic prospective cohort of n = 174 pubertal and postpubertal youth <16 years with gender dysphoria, referred for hormonal suppression or hormone therapy, and 160 linked parent-participants. Measures assessed health, demographics, and visit outcome.RESULTS
Of youth, 137 were transmasculine (assigned female) and 37 transfeminine (assigned male); 69.0% were aged 14 to 15, 18.8% Indigenous, 6.6% visible minorities, 25.7% from immigrant families, and 27.1% low income. Most (66.0%) were gender-aware before age 12. Only 58.1% of transfeminine youth lived in their gender full-time versus 90.1% of transmasculine (P < .001). Although transmasculine youth were more likely than transfeminine youth to report depressive symptoms (21.2% vs 10.8%; P = .03) and anxiety (66.1% vs 33.3%; P < .001), suicidality was similarly high overall (past-year ideation: 34.5%, attempts: 16.8%). All were in school; 62.0% reported strong parental gender support, with parents the most common support persons (91.9%). Two-thirds of families reported external gender-related stressors. Youth had met with a range of providers (68.5% with a family physician). At clinic visit, 62.4% were prescribed hormonal suppression or hormone therapy, most commonly depot leuprolide acetate.CONCLUSIONS
Trans youth in Canada attending clinics for hormonal suppression or gender-affirming hormones were generally healthy but with depression, anxiety, and support needs.
Lymphomatous involvement of the larynx is a rare entity. We present a case of atypical laryngotracheitis as the initial manifestation of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a pediatric patient. The diagnosis was aided through the use of microbial cell-free DNA (mcfDNA) testing, which detected the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in the patient’s plasma. This enabled the consideration of an Epstein-Barr virus–related lymphoproliferative process, leading to additional workup and the final diagnosis of lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of mcfDNA testing leading not simply to an infectious organism, but further to a new oncologic diagnosis. Plasma mcfDNA testing has the potential to inform clinical practice beyond classic infectious disease manifestations. In this article, we review both the possible future applications and the areas of further investigation that remain.
Evidence on repeating vaccination misinformation or "myths" in debunking text is inconclusive; repeating myths may unintentionally increase agreement with myths or help discredit myths. In this study we aimed to compare the effect of repeating vaccination myths and other text-based debunking strategies on parents’ agreement with myths and their intention to vaccinate their children.METHODS
For this online experiment we recruited 788 parents of children aged 0 to 5 years; 454 (58%) completed the study. We compared 3 text-based debunking strategies (repeating myths, posing questions, or making factual statements) and a control. We measured changes in agreement with myths and intention to vaccinate immediately after the intervention and at least 1 week later. The primary analysis compared the change in agreement with vaccination myths from baseline, between groups, at each time point after the intervention.RESULTS
There was no evidence that repeating myths increased agreement with myths compared with the other debunking strategies or the control. Posing questions significantly decreased agreement with myths immediately after the intervention compared with the control (difference: –0.30 points, 99.17% confidence interval: –0.58 to –0.02, P = .004, d = 0.39). There was no evidence of a difference between other debunking strategies or the control at either time point, or on intention to vaccinate.CONCLUSIONS
Debunking strategies that repeat vaccination myths do not appear to be inferior to strategies that do not repeat myths.
In 2008, over-the-counter cough and cold medications (CCMs) underwent labeling changes in response to safety concerns, including fatalities, reported in children exposed to CCMs. The objective of this study is to describe fatalities associated with exposures to CCMs in children <12 years old that were detected by a safety surveillance system from 2008 to 2016.METHODS
Fatalities in children <12 years old that occurred between 2008 and 2016 associated with oral exposure to one or more CCMs were identified by the Pediatric Cough and Cold Safety Surveillance System. An expert panel reviewed all cases to determine the causal relationship between the exposure and death, if the intent of exposure was therapeutic, and if the dose was supratherapeutic. Other contributing factors related to the child’s death were also identified as part of a root cause analysis.RESULTS
Of the 180 eligible fatalities captured during the study period, 40 were judged by the expert panel to be either related or potentially related to the CCM. Of these, the majority (n = 24; 60.0%) occurred in children <2 years old and involved nontherapeutic intent (n = 22; 55.0%). The most frequently involved index ingredient was diphenhydramine (n = 28; 70.0%). In 6 cases (n = 6; 15.0%), the CCM was administered to murder the child. In another 7 cases (n = 7; 17.5%), death followed the intentional use of the CCM to sedate the child.CONCLUSIONS
Pediatric fatalities associated with CCMs occurred primarily in young children after deliberate medication administration with nontherapeutic intent by a caregiver.
Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia (EA) repair affords many benefits to the patient; however, intracorporeal suturing of the anastomosis is technically challenging. Esophageal magnetic compression anastomosis (EMCA) is a compelling option for endoluminal EA repair, but available EMCA devices have prohibitive rates of recalcitrant stricture. Connect-EA is a new endoluminal EMCA device system that employs 2 magnetic anchors with a unique mating geometry designed to reliably create a robust anastomosis and decrease rates of leak and stricture. We describe our first-in-human experience with this novel endoluminal device for staged EA repair in 3 patients (Gross type A, B, and C) at high risk for conventional surgical repair. First, the esophageal pouches were approximated thoracoscopically. After acute tension subsided, the device anchors were endoscopically placed in the esophageal pouches and mated. Anchors were spontaneously excreted in 2 cases. Endoscopic repositioning and retrieval of the anchors were required in 1 patient because of narrowed esophageal anatomy. There were no perioperative complications. Patients were managed for 14 to 18 months. The strictures that developed in the patients were membranous and responded well to dilation alone, resolving after 4 to 5 outpatient dilations. Gastrostomies were closed between 6 and 11 months and all patients are tolerating full oral nutrition. Early experience with this new endoluminal EMCA device system is highly favorable. The device offers considerable benefit over conventional handsewn esophageal anastomosis and anastomotic outcomes are superior to available EMCA devices.
Since its inception in 2010, the Concurrent Care for Children Provision of the Affordable Care Act has enabled seriously ill pediatric patients and their families to access comprehensive, supportive hospice services while simultaneously receiving ongoing treatment-directed therapies. Although this groundbreaking federal legislation has resulted in improvements in care for vulnerable pediatric patients, the implementation of the law has varied from state to state through Medicaid programming. The pediatric professional community is called to consider how Medicaid services can more effectively be delivered by leveraging legislative mandates and collaborative relationships between clinicians, Medicaid administrators, and policy makers. In this article, we examine ways concurrent care has been executed in 3 different states and how key stakeholders in care for children with serious illness advocated to ensure effective implementation of the legislation. The lessons learned in working with state Medicaid programs are applicable to any advocacy issue impacting children and families .
A previously healthy, term, 5-week-old girl initially presented to her primary care physician with a solitary, enlarging scalp nodule. The infant was otherwise well without additional signs or symptoms of illness. Over the next several weeks, the nodule continued to grow, and additional lesions appeared on her scalp. An ultrasound of the primary nodule revealed a hypoechoic structure favored to represent a serosanguinous fluid collection. After evaluation by general surgery and dermatology, she underwent a scalp biopsy of the largest lesion. While biopsy specimen results were pending, her parents noted that she was developing increased irritability, difficulty closing her right eye, and facial weakness. She was referred to the emergency department where a right-sided facial droop involving the brow and forehead was noted. The skin biopsy specimen results, along with subsequent laboratory studies and imaging, led to the final diagnosis.
During infancy, the American Academy of Pediatrics Bright Futures fourth edition health supervision guidelines recommend frequent well-child visits (WCVs) in which providers are expected to screen for and address maternal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and health-related social needs (HRSN). We spread an evidence-based approach that implements these recommendations (Developmental Understanding and Legal Collaboration for Everyone; DULCE) with 3 aims for 6-month-old infants and their families: 75% receive all WCVs on time, 95% are screened for 7 HRSNs, and 90% of families with concrete supports needs and 75% of families with maternal depression or IPV receive support.METHODS
Between January 2017 and July 2018, five DULCE teams (including a community health worker, early childhood system representative, legal partner, clinic administrator, pediatric and behavioral health clinicians) from 3 communities in 2 states participated in a learning collaborative. Teams adapted DULCE using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, reported data, and shared learning monthly. Run charts were used to study measures. The main outcome was the percent of infants that received all WCVs on time.RESULTS
The percentage of families who completed all WCVs on time increased from 46% to 65%. More than 95% of families were screened for HRSNs, 70% had ≥1 positive screen, and 86% and 71% of those received resource information for concrete supports and maternal depression and IPV, respectively.CONCLUSIONS
Quality improvement–supported DULCE expansion increased by 50% the proportion of infants receiving all WCVs on time and reliably identified and addressed families’ HRSNs, via integration of existing resources.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by immune overactivation. It can occur because of primary genetic mutations or secondary to almost any inflammatory or infectious process. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are varied and life-threatening and resemble those of many malignancies, infections, sepsis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Laboratory abnormalities often are not diagnostic for HLH until late in the disease course, and the laboratory studies are send-out tests at most institutions. Thus, quickly and accurately diagnosing pediatric patients with HLH presents significant challenges to the clinician. Furthermore, there has been recent discussion in the literature regarding the use of diagnostic criteria for HLH. In this case report, we detail an adolescent male individual who developed persistent unexplained fever, rhabdomyolysis, and regional ischemic immune myopathy. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of a pediatric patient with this rare myopathy or HLH presenting with persistent rhabdomyolysis in the literature. The patient was hospitalized for a total of 61 days, with multiple treatments attempted throughout during his course of illness. In this report, we highlight the importance of using diagnostic flexibility when HLH is suspected in pediatric patients and provide insight into the unique challenges of identifying this condition.
Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) were developed to assess pediatric fellows. We previously showed that fellowship program directors (FPDs) may graduate fellows who still require supervision. How this compares with their expectations for entrustment of practicing subspecialists is unknown.METHODS
We surveyed US FPDs in 14 pediatric subspecialties through the Subspecialty Pediatrics Investigator Network between April and August 2017. For each of 7 common pediatric subspecialty EPAs, we compared the minimum level of supervision that FPDs required for graduation with the level they expected of subspecialists for safe and effective practice using the Friedman rank sum test and paired t test. We compared differences between subspecialties using linear regression.RESULTS
We collected data from 660 FPDs (response rate 82%). For all EPAs, FPDs did not require fellows to reach the level of entrustment for graduation that they expected of subspecialists to practice (P < .001). FPDs expected the least amount of supervision for the EPAs consultation and handovers. Mean differences between supervision levels for graduation and practice were smaller for clinical EPAs (consultation, handovers, lead a team) when compared with nonclinical EPAs (quality improvement, management, lead the profession and scholarship; P = .001) and were similar across nearly all subspecialties.CONCLUSIONS
Fellowship graduates may need continued development of clinical and nonclinical skills in their early practice period, underscoring a need for continued assessment and mentoring. Graduation readiness must be based on clear requirements, with alignment of FPD expectations and regulatory standards, to ensure quality care for patients.
Adolescents and young adults living with intellectual disability (ID) have made significant advancements integrating into multiple aspects of western society, but there has been less progress with regards to sexual health. While advocating for individuals with ID to live life to the fullest, pediatricians have practical concerns regarding the ability to consent to sex as well as avoid coercion and manipulation in sexual encounters. This has led to tension between supporting the autonomy of a patient with ID while protecting them from harm. We present a case of a young adult with moderate ID who is engaging in a sexual relationship with her boyfriend without parental knowledge. The pediatrician must decide the most appropriate course of action to support the patient’s autonomy but also ensure that the patient is a willing participant and understands the risks of engaging in sexual activity. This case highlights 4 main themes: (1) practical concerns when approaching sexual health in the adolescent with ID, (2) advocating for the rights of those with ID to live life to the fullest, (3) the critical inclusion of individuals with ID in decisions directly affecting them and their peer group, and (4) decision-making capacity and respect for autonomy in individuals with ID. This case highlights the delicate balance providers face when providing care to adolescents and young adults with ID: supporting autonomy to make decisions while reducing harm to a vulnerable population.
Our understanding of inflammatory bowel disease is changing as we identify genetic variants associated with immune dysregulation. Inflammatory bowel disease undetermined, even when diagnosed in older children and adolescents, in the setting of multiple inflammatory and infectious diseases should raise the suspicion of complex immune dysregulation with a monogenic basis. We report a case of inflammatory bowel disease undetermined triggered by exposure to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in a 16-year-old girl with a background history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cytopenias, recurrent respiratory tract and middle ear infections, and esophageal candidiasis. Immunologic assessment included measurement of immunoglobulin levels, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, B-cell functional tests, and whole-exome sequencing. Laboratory investigation revealed defects of humoral immunity, including mild persistent hypogammaglobulinemia affecting all 3 isotypes and absent isohemagglutinins. Whole exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous TNFRSF13B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 13B, or Transmembrane Activator and Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand Interactor, TACI) gene variant, which is associated with common variable immunodeficiency and the development of autoimmune diseases. In conclusion, a clinical history of recurrent infections, atypical histologic features of inflammatory bowel disease, additional autoimmune manifestations, and an inadequate response to conventional therapy should prompt the physician to refer to an immunologist with the query of inborn error of immunity. We report how extensive immune evaluation and genetic diagnosis can individualize care and facilitate a multidisciplinary team approach.
Standard treatment of children hospitalized for acute orbital cellulitis includes systemic antibiotics. Recent data from single-center studies suggest the addition of systemic corticosteroids may hasten clinical improvement and reduce hospital length of stay (LOS). We investigate the potential relationship between corticosteroid exposure and duration of hospitalization for pediatric orbital cellulitis.METHODS
Using Pediatric Health Information System registry data from 51 children’s facilities, we performed a retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized for orbital cellulitis <18 years of age from 2007 to 2018. The primary study outcome was hospital LOS. Secondary outcomes included frequency of surgical interventions, PICU admission, and 30-day related-cause readmission.RESULTS
Of the 5645 children included for study, 1347 (24%) were prescribed corticosteroids within 2 days of admission. Corticosteroid prescription was not associated with LOS in analyses adjusted for age; presence of meningitis, abscess, or vision issues; and operative episode and PICU admission within 2 days (eβ = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97–1.06). Corticosteroid exposure was associated with operative episodes after 2 days of hospitalization (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.29–3.27) and 30-day readmission (odds ratio = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.52–3.78) among patients with a primary diagnosis of orbital cellulitis.CONCLUSIONS
In this database query, we were not able to detect a reduction in LOS associated with corticosteroid exposure during hospitalization for orbital cellulitis. Corticosteroid prescription was associated with PICU admission and operative episodes after 2 days of hospitalization. Before the adoption of routine corticosteroid use, prospective, randomized control trials are needed.
To determine the association between states’ total spending on benefit programs and child maltreatment outcomes.METHODS
This was an ecological study of all US states during federal fiscal years 2010–2017. The primary predictor was states’ total annual spending on local, state, and federal benefit programs per person living ≤100% federal poverty limit, which was the sum of (1) cash, housing, and in-kind assistance, (2) housing infrastructure, (3) child care assistance, (4) refundable Earned Income Tax Credit, and (5) Medical Assistance Programs. The main outcomes were rates of maltreatment reporting, substantiations, foster care placements, and fatalities after adjustment for relevant confounders. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for federal spending and estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).RESULTS
States’ total spending was inversely associated with all maltreatment outcomes. For each additional $1000 states spent on benefit programs per person living in poverty, there was an associated –4.3% (adjusted IRR: 0.9573 [95% CI: 0.9486 to 0.9661]) difference in reporting, –4.0% (adjusted IRR: 0.903 [95% CI: 0.9534 to 0.9672]) difference in substantiations, –2.1% (adjusted IRR: 0.9795 [95% CI: 0.9759 to 0.9832]) difference in foster care placements, and –7.7% (adjusted IRR: 0.9229 [95% CI: 0.9128 to 0.9330]) difference in fatalities. In 2017, extrapolating $1000 of additional spending for each person living in poverty ($46.5 billion nationally, or 13.3% increase) might have resulted in 181 850 fewer reports, 28 575 fewer substantiations, 4168 fewer foster care placements, and 130 fewer fatalities.CONCLUSIONS
State spending on benefit programs was associated with reductions in child maltreatment, which might offset some benefit program costs.
We aimed to reassess the relationship between phototherapy and cancer in an extended version of a previous cohort and to replicate a report from Quebec of increased cancer risk after phototherapy beginning at age 4 years.METHODS
This cohort study included 139 100 children born at ≥35 weeks’ gestation from 1995 to 2017, followed through March 16, 2019, in Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals who had a qualifying bilirubin level from –3 mg/dL to +4.9 mg/dL from the American Academy of Pediatrics phototherapy threshold; an additional 40 780 children and 5 years of follow-up from our previous report. The exposure was inpatient phototherapy (yes or no), and the outcomes were various types of childhood cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for propensity-score quintiles, and allowed for time-dependent exposure effects to assess for the risk of cancer after a latent period.RESULTS
Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.2 (5.7) years, the crude incidence of cancer per 100 000 person-years was 25.1 among those exposed to phototherapy and 19.2 among those not exposed (233 cases of cancer). After propensity adjustment, phototherapy was not associated with any cancer (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–1.54), hematopoietic cancer (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.74–1.83), or solid tumors (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.65–1.58). We also found no association with cancer diagnoses at age ≥4 years.CONCLUSIONS
We did not confirm previous, concerning associations between phototherapy and adjusted risk of any cancer, nonlymphocytic leukemia, or brain and/or central nervous systems tumors in later childhood.
In this state-of-the-art review, we highlight the major advances over the last 5 years in neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI). Large multicenter studies reveal that neonatal AKI is common and independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The natural course of neonatal AKI, along with the risk factors, mitigation strategies, and the role of AKI on short- and long-term outcomes, is becoming clearer. Specific progress has been made in identifying potential preventive strategies for AKI, such as the use of caffeine in premature neonates, theophylline in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and nephrotoxic medication monitoring programs. New evidence highlights the importance of the kidney in "crosstalk" between other organs and how AKI likely plays a critical role in other organ development and injury, such as intraventricular hemorrhage and lung disease. New technology has resulted in advancement in prevention and improvements in the current management in neonates with severe AKI. With specific continuous renal replacement therapy machines designed for neonates, this therapy is now available and is being used with increasing frequency in NICUs. Moving forward, biomarkers, such as urinary neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin, and other new technologies, such as monitoring of renal tissue oxygenation and nephron counting, will likely play an increased role in identification of AKI and those most vulnerable for chronic kidney disease. Future research needs to be focused on determining the optimal follow-up strategy for neonates with a history of AKI to detect chronic kidney disease.
We sought to measure trends in evaluation and management of children with simple febrile seizures (SFSs) before and after the American Academy of Pediatrics updated guidelines published in 2011.METHODS
In this retrospective, cross-sectional analysis, we used the Pediatric Health Information System database comprising 49 tertiary care pediatric hospitals in the United States from 2005 to 2019. We included children aged 6 to 60 months with an emergency department visit for first SFS identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision.RESULTS
We identified 142 121 children (median age 21 months, 42.4% female) with an emergency department visit for SFS. A total of 49 668 (35.0%) children presented before and 92 453 (65.1%) after the guideline. The rate of lumbar puncture for all ages declined from 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8% to 12.4%) in 2005 to 0.6% (95% CI, 0.5% to 0.8%) in 2019 (P < .001). Similar reductions were noted in rates of head computed tomography (10.6% to 1.6%; P < .001), complete blood cell count (38.8% to 10.9%; P < .001), hospital admission (19.2% to 5.2%; P < .001), and mean costs ($1523 to $601; P < .001). Reductions in all outcomes began before, and continued after, the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline. There was no significant change in delayed diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (preperiod 2 of 49 668 [0.0040%; 95% CI, 0.00049% to 0.015%], postperiod 3 of 92 453 [0.0032%; 95% CI, 0.00066% to 0.0094%]; P = .99).CONCLUSIONS
Diagnostic testing, hospital admission, and costs decreased over the study period, without a concomitant increase in delayed diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. These data suggest most children with SFSs can be safely managed without lumber puncture or other diagnostic testing.
In this study, we sought to identify which adolescents progress to regular electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (without cigarette smoking), which adolescents become dual users of both types of cigarettes, and how dual use develops across time.METHODS
Adolescents (N = 1808) from public high schools outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, completed in-classroom surveys at wave 1 (fall 2016, beginning of ninth grade) and at 6-month intervals for the following 36 months (fall 2019, beginning of 12th grade).RESULTS
A sequential processes growth mixture model identified 4 conjoint latent classes: later, rapid e-cigarette uptake (class 1: n = 230); no use of e-cigarettes or combustible cigarettes (class 2: n = 1141); earlier, steady e-cigarette uptake (class 3: n = 265); and dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes (class 4: n = 204). Using a rich set of potential risk factors, multinomial logistic regression assessed the likelihood of belonging to each conjoint class compared with the comparison class (dual use). Adolescents in the dual use class were characterized by a greater number and severity of e-cigarette and combustible cigarette risk factors. Adolescents in the 2 e-cigarettes–only classes were characterized by either e-cigarette–specific risk factors (earlier onset) or no risk factors (later onset). The no use class had an absence of risk factors for e-cigarette and cigarette use.CONCLUSIONS
This study provides new prospective evidence for distinct patterns and profiles of adolescents who progress to current e-cigarette use, including adolescents who were initially cigarette smokers. The findings have implications for prevention intervention timing, tobacco product focus, content, and the adolescent subgroups to target.
There is a lack of research on individual perceptions of social experiences and social relationships among very preterm (VP) adults compared with term-born peers.OBJECTIVE
To investigate self-perceived social functioning in adults born VP (<32 weeks’ gestation) and/or with very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1500g) compared with term-born adults (≥37 weeks’ gestation) using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis.DATA SOURCES
Two international consortia: Research on European Children and Adults born Preterm and Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.STUDY SELECTION
Cohorts with outcomes assessed by using the Adult Self-Report Adaptive Functioning scales (friends, spouse/partner, family, job, and education) in both groups.DATA EXTRACTION
IPD from 5 eligible cohorts were collected. Raw-sum scores for each scale were standardized as z scores by using mean and SD of controls for each cohort. Pooled effect size was measured by difference () in means between groups.RESULTS
One-stage analyses (1285 participants) revealed significantly lower scores for relationships with friends in VP/VLBW adults compared with controls ( –0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.61 to –0.13). Differences were similar after adjusting for sex, age, and socioeconomic status ( –0.39, 95% CI: –0.63 to –0.15) and after excluding participants with neurosensory impairment ( –0.34, 95% CI: –0.61 to –0.07). No significant differences were found in other domains.LIMITATIONS
Generalizability of research findings to VP survivors born in recent decades.CONCLUSIONS
VP/VLBW adults scored their relationship with friends lower but perceived their family and partner relationships, as well as work and educational experiences, as comparable to those of controls.